CAFFEINE: IS LESS BETTER FOR ENDURANCE?

A new study has investigated the effects of three different doses of caffeine on muscle strength and muscle endurance in resistance-trained men (https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0433). It concluded that a relatively low dose of 2mg per kilo of body weight was as effective in producing lower-body muscle endurance gains as higher doses of caffeine (4 and 6mgs per kilo). The lower dose also appeared to enhance lower-body strength, whereas the higher doses didn’t.
Read more about the science and practice of optimal caffeine dosing for performance in this Peak Performance article: https://www.peakendurancesport.com/nutrition-for-endurance-athletes/supplements/caffeine-old-friend-new-findings/

MACHINE OR FREE WEIGHT SQUATS FOR PERFORMANCE?

A new study by US scientists on recreational female athletes has compared free-weight squats vs. machine squats for agility, sprint and jump performance benefits (https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7100215). It concluded that the ‘machine squat training was equal or superior to the machine training’, suggesting that athletes (esp. novice athletes) should not consider machine weight training as an inferior option.
Read more about the pros and cons of machine and free weight training (and how to make both better) in this Peak Performance article: https://www.peakendurancesport.com/endurance-training/strength-conditioning-and-flexibility/strength-training-athletes-free-machine-weights/